Chip cards contain a memory chip that can be read or encoded via the chip contacts. The chip card is standardized according to ISO 7816. Possible kinds of chips vary from simple memory chips without security features to highly complex processor chips. In general processor cards comply with chip cards, but their embedded chip contains not only memory but memory plus a microprocessor, EEPROM, for encoding and data storage, RAM and maybe a co-processor. A chip operating system (COS) manages data transfer, memory management and data processing within the chip.
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